Tuesday, March 6, 2018
Scientists Share Ideas for Gateway Activities Near the Moon (News Release)
NASA is looking at how the Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway can create value for both robotic and human exploration in deep space.
In late 2017, the agency asked the global science community to submit ideas leveraging the gateway in lunar orbit to advance scientific discoveries in a wide range of fields. NASA received more than 190 abstracts covering topics human health and performance, Earth observation, astrophysics, heliophysics, and lunar and planetary sciences, as well as infrastructure suggestions to support breakthrough science.
Although it is too early to select specific research for the gateway, the workshop marks the first time in more than a decade the agency’s human spaceflight program brought scientists from a variety of disciplines together to discuss future exploration.
“We are in the early design and development stages for the gateway, and we were curious about the level of interest in using this platform for science including the scale and scope of instrumentation scientists might want to see onboard,” said Jason Crusan, director, Advanced Exploration Systems at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “We were impressed by the breadth of the abstract responses and invited scientists and engineers to a workshop to learn more.”
Gateway assembly is targeted to begin in 2022, with the launch of the power and propulsion element. Habitation, logistics, and airlock capabilities would follow incrementally and establish the gateway’s core functionalities. Initially, NASA will send crew to the gateway once per year, so most investigations will require high levels of autonomy, and/or teleoperations.
Most concepts were based on the gateway’s location in lunar orbit, outside of Earth’s magnetosphere. This locale permits interesting observations, not possible in Earth orbit, in the fields of astrophysics, heliophysics, and Earth science. At the same time, exposure to the deep space environment introduces risk to astronauts, electronics, and hardware, due to high-energy radiation and space debris exposure. Understanding and mitigating these risks was a topic often discussed across scientific domains.
Science Opportunities Abound
“Science investigations are a critical element of our agency-wide exploration initiatives to the Moon,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator, NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. “We’ve studied our Earth companion for decades with robotic spacecraft and we’re eager for new innovative lunar research opportunities that also will help us learn more about our solar system and beyond.”
Scientists identified a broad range of instruments that could be used inside the gateway, as well as attached to the outside of the spacecraft, or free-flying nearby. Inside, the gateway could be outfitted with instruments to evaluate radiation effects on electronics and other susceptible materials. Monitors could be activated during crew visits, to evaluate behavioral health, neurocognitive functions, and radiation and microgravity effects. Robotic helpers were discussed to support visiting crews, and also maintain operations when the gateway is uncrewed.
Outside the gateway, scientists suggested materials research platforms as permanent, fixed panels that could host interchangeable experiments with standardized attachments. Earth observation experts saw opportunities to use Earth as proxy for exoplanet detection, and noted the capability for “full disk” imaging of Earth, as well as regular views of polar regions. With a view to the Sun, advanced solar activity characterizations are possible, and could improve our understanding of solar cycles and their effects on Earth as well as the possible risks to astronauts and spacecraft systems.
The gateway also could be used to deploy increasingly more capable CubeSats to conduct a multitude of experiments. The gateway’s infrastructure could support nearby spacecraft servicing, wide-aperture telescope assembly, and serve as a communications relay for large data returns to Earth from small probes or satellites in the lunar environment.
Other ideas included robotically collecting lunar samples to investigate aboard the gateway or preserve for return to Earth, and astronauts aboard the gateway could remotely operate rovers on the surface to characterize resources, or venture to the never-before explored lunar far side.
All-in-all, the workshop provided NASA’s human spaceflight team what they needed: a basic understanding of the science that could be conducted from the vantage point of lunar orbit, and the potential spacecraft resources that would be required to do so.
“The gateway will help us return humans to the lunar surface, and expand human presence into the solar system. We now see the endless opportunities for it to play an important role for science in cislunar space as well,” said Crusan. “The enthusiasm from this workshop was awesome, and we look forward to keeping the conversation going.”
Saturday, February 17, 2018
While SpaceX's Falcon Heavy rocket is now the most powerful heavy-lift launch vehicle in the U.S. inventory as of February 6, that title will soon be bestowed upon another behemoth—NASA's own Space Launch System (SLS)—as early as late 2019. Just as the infographic below shows, the SLS will be comprised of various components that, on their own, are of immense size compared to a human being. Look at the very bottom of this illustration...where a person is placed near one of the rocket's twin Solid Rocket Boosters for scale. Along with the Falcon Heavy, having the SLS at America's disposal should obviously bring its space program that much closer to making a manned flight to Mars a reality. Or at least bring a lunar space station to fruition.
Tuesday, February 13, 2018
NASA’s Lunar Outpost will Extend Human Presence in Deep Space (News Release)
As NASA sets its sights on returning to the Moon, and preparing for Mars, the agency is developing new opportunities in lunar orbit to provide the foundation for human exploration deeper into the solar system.
For months, the agency has been studying an orbital outpost concept in the vicinity of the Moon with U.S. industry and the International Space Station partners. As part of the fiscal year 2019 budget proposal, NASA is planning to build the Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway in the 2020s.
The platform will consist of at least a power and propulsion element and habitation, logistics and airlock capabilities. While specific technical and mission capabilities as well as partnership opportunities are under consideration, NASA plans to launch elements of the gateway on the agency’s Space Launch System or commercial rockets for assembly in space.
“The Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway will give us a strategic presence in cislunar space. It will drive our activity with commercial and international partners and help us explore the Moon and its resources,” said William Gerstenmaier, associate administrator, Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “We will ultimately translate that experience toward human missions to Mars.”
The power and propulsion element will be the initial component of the gateway, and is targeted to launch in 2022. Using advanced high-power solar electric propulsion, the element will maintain the gateway’s position and can move the gateway between lunar orbits over its lifetime to maximize science and exploration operations. As part of the agency’s public-private partnership work under Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships, or NextSTEP, five companies are completing four-month studies on affordable ways to develop the power and propulsion element. NASA will leverage capabilities and plans of commercial satellite companies to build the next generation of all electric spacecraft.
The power and propulsion element will also provide high-rate and reliable communications for the gateway including space-to-Earth and space-to-lunar uplinks and downlinks, spacecraft-to-spacecraft crosslinks, and support for spacewalk communications. Finally, it also can accommodate an optical communications demonstration – using lasers to transfer large data packages at faster rates than traditional radio frequency systems.
Habitation capabilities launching in 2023 will further enhance our abilities for science, exploration, and partner (commercial and international) use. The gateway’s habitation capabilities will be informed by NextSTEP partnerships, and also by studies with the International Space Station partners. With this capability, crew aboard the gateway could live and work in deep space for up to 30 to 60 days at a time.
Crew will also participate in a variety of deep space exploration and commercial activities in the vicinity of the Moon, including possible missions to the lunar surface. NASA also wants to leverage the gateway for scientific investigations near and on the Moon. The agency recently completed a call for abstracts from the global science community, and is hosting a workshop in late February to discuss the unique scientific research the gateway could enable. NASA anticipates the gateway will also support the technology maturation and development of operating concepts needed for missions beyond the Earth and Moon system.
Adding an airlock to the gateway in the future will enable crew to conduct spacewalks, enable science activities and accommodate docking of future elements. NASA is also planning to launch at least one logistics module to the gateway, which will enable cargo resupply deliveries, additional scientific research and technology demonstrations and commercial use.
Following the commercial model the agency pioneered in low-Earth orbit for space station resupply, NASA plans to resupply the gateway through commercial cargo missions. Visiting cargo spacecraft could remotely dock to the gateway between crewed missions.
Drawing on the interests and capabilities of industry and international partners, NASA will develop progressively complex robotic missions to the surface of the Moon with scientific and exploration objectives in advance of a human return. NASA’s exploration missions and partnerships will also support the missions that will take humans farther into the solar system than ever before.
NASA’s Space Launch System rocket and Orion spacecraft are the backbone of the agency’s future in deep space. Momentum continues toward the first integrated launch of the system around the Moon in fiscal year 2020 and a mission with crew by 2023. The agency is also looking at a number of possible public/private partnerships in areas including in-space manufacturing and technologies to extract and process resources from the Moon and Mars, known as in-situ resource utilization.
Thursday, February 8, 2018
NASA / David C. Bowman
Orion AA-2 Crew Module Painted for Flight (News Release - February 6)
The Orion crew module for the Ascent Abort Test 2 (AA-2) was transported from NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, to the Joint Base Langley-Eustis Friday, Jan. 26, for a fresh coat of paint before final testing and shipment to NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. Specific flight test markings are being painted on the crew module to allow for attitude and trajectory data collection during launch. Next, it will be tested to determine the module's mass and weight, and also its center of gravity or balance, and then delivered to Johnson for integration and additional testing.
The crew module to be used for the test, fabricated at Langley, is a simplified representation designed to match the outer shape and approximate mass distribution of the Orion crew module that astronauts will fly in. During the test, planned for April 2019, the launch abort system will be activated during challenging ascent conditions at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
Wednesday, February 7, 2018
Sierra Nevada Corporation
Sierra Nevada Corporation Receives Official NASA Launch Window for Dream Chaser® Spacecraft (Press Release)
First Launch to International Space Station Slated for Late 2020
SPARKS, Nev. , February 07, 2018 – Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) received NASA’s Authority to Proceed for the Dream Chaser spacecraft’s first mission, with a launch window for late 2020. The mission will provide cargo resupply to the International Space Station under the Commercial Resupply Services Contract 2 (CRS2).
“SNC has been successfully completing critical design milestones as approved by NASA, and having a timetable for the first launch is another important step achieved for us,” said Fatih Ozmen, owner and CEO of SNC. “The team has worked so hard to get to this point and we can’t wait to fulfill this mission for NASA.”
Key Mission Capabilities:
- Delivers up to 5,500 kg (12,125 lb) of pressurized and unpressurized supplies and scientific research payloads
- Remains attached to the space station for extended periods so crew can transfer cargo and perform science laboratory operations
- Flying laboratory that allows scientists to send commands, receive data in real-time
- Powered payload science experiments can operate continuously during the mission
- Critical science is conducted from the pressurized cabin (crew-tended or autonomous)
- Unpressurized cargo/experiments are transferred to or from the space station via robotic operations
- Returns up to 2000kg of cargo via pinpoint landing at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) for immediate post-landing handover to customer, maximizing the integrity of data collected on-orbit
“The Dream Chaser is going to be a tremendous help to the critical science and research happening on the space station,” said Mark Sirangelo, executive vice president of SNC’s Space Systems business area. “Receiving NASA’s Authority to Proceed is a big step for the program. We can’t wait to see the vehicle return to Kennedy Space Center to a runway landing, allowing immediate access to the science payloads being returned from the station.”
Source: Sierra Nevada Corporation
Sierra Nevada Corporation
Tuesday, February 6, 2018
Earlier today, at 3:45 PM, EST (12:45 PM, PST), the Falcon Heavy rocket roared to life and soared into sunny skies after flawlessly lifting off from Launch Complex (LC)-39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The flight was initially delayed from its initial 1:30 PM, EST (10:30 AM, PST) T-0 due to high-altitude wind shear. Once the upper-level wind speeds reached acceptable limits for lift-off, SpaceX gave the 'go' to begin loading propellant onto Falcon Heavy at LC-39A...and it was smooth sailing during the countdown from there. 13 minutes after launch, the maiden flight of the world's newest and most powerful rocket was almost a monumental success. Both previously-flown side boosters safely and simultaneously touched down at SpaceX's twin landing zones near Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, and cameras placed around the soon-to-be-interplanetary Tesla Roadster were giving us astonishing footage of the car as its upper stage motor prepared to boost it (and Starman, the Tesla's onboard passenger) onto a heliocentric trajectory that will take the red sports coupe past Mars' orbit.
The only hiccup that occurred during Falcon Heavy's historic first flight was its core booster not landing on a drone ship stationed out in the Atlantic Ocean after launch. According to SpaceX founder Elon Musk a few hours later, two of the booster's three landing engines ran out of igniter fluid during the final descent—causing the rocket to not generate the thrust needed to prevent it from slamming into the ocean at 300 MPH. But with this minor setback aside, SpaceX scored a huge victory successfully launching a heavy-lift vehicle of this caliber on its first attempt. Considering the fact that SpaceX only succeeded twice in five tries to send its Falcon 1 rocket to Earth orbit almost a decade ago, this is definitely something that SpaceX can be proud of as it begins launching operational satellites aboard the Falcon Heavy. The next flight of this vehicle (possibly carrying a U.S. Air Force payload dubbed STP-2, and LightSail, a privately-funded solar sail developed by The Planetary Society...a non-profit space advocacy group) will be several months from now. Here's hoping that the second flight of Falcon Heavy will be almost as flawless and exciting as its first one. It was a great day for rocket science!
Monday, February 5, 2018
Just thought I'd share these two photos as well as the cool SpaceX video below to commemorate the maiden launch of the Falcon Heavy rocket tomorrow. This mammoth heavy-lift vehicle is set to lift off from Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex (LC)-39A in Florida between 1:30 - 4:00 PM, EST (10:30 AM - 1:00 PM, PST). If all goes well, rocket fans along the Florida coastline will get a treat watching the Falcon Heavy's two previously-used side boosters simultaneously come in for a touchdown (complete with multiple sonic booms) at SpaceX's landing pads several miles from LC-39A, minutes after lift-off. And in deep space, Elon Musk's Tesla Roadster—which is ferrying a passenger dubbed Starman—will head towards Mars' orbit while playing David Bowie's "Space Oddity" on its radio during the voyage. That's if everything goes as planned. If things don't, well— I don't even want to discuss 'em here.
So godspeed Falcon Heavy! May your first flight be SpaceX's finest hour...to paraphrase flight director Gene Kranz from the Oscar-winning film Apollo 13. Carry on.
SpaceX / Elon Musk
Saturday, January 27, 2018
Earlier today, SpaceX founder Elon Musk posted a tweet (shown below) that revealed when his company will attempt a launch of its Falcon Heavy rocket, which successfully conducted a static-fire test last Wednesday. According to Musk, the Falcon Heavy will lift off from Launch Complex 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Tuesday, February 6. According to other sources, SpaceX is actually aiming for February 6 or 7 to send its newest rocket on its inaugural flight beyond Earth's atmosphere. The launch window would be between 1:30 to 4:30 PM, EST (10:30 AM to 1:30 PM, PST) for both days. I'll be at my laptop watching the SpaceX webcast of the launch on either of those dates! This will be the most powerful rocket in the world, after all—until late 2019 or mid-2020, that is. Have a great weekend!
Aiming for first flight of Falcon Heavy on Feb 6 from Apollo launchpad 39A at Cape Kennedy. Easy viewing from the public causeway.— Elon Musk (@elonmusk) January 27, 2018
Thursday, January 25, 2018
This Sunday, it will be 32 years since the 7 astronauts of space shuttle Challenger lost their lives 73 seconds into flight on a cold January day. On Saturday, it will be 51 years since the 3 astronauts of Apollo 1 perished in a terrible fire during a ground launch rehearsal at Cape Canaveral, Florida. And a week from today, it will be 15 years since the crew of space shuttle Columbia was lost during re-entry into Earth's atmosphere above Texas. May all these folks rest in peace. Today is NASA's official day of honoring these fallen heroes and pioneers.
Wednesday, January 24, 2018
Congratulations to SpaceX for successfully conducting a static-fire test on the world's most powerful rocket today! At 9:30 AM, Pacific Standard Time, the 27 Merlin 1D engines came to life on the Falcon Heavy at Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Launch Complex 39A in Florida. While the engine test "only" lasted between 6-7 seconds (online sources stated that the static fire would span 12 seconds), it was long enough for SpaceX to receive enough data to conclude that a second engine test won't be necessary for its newest vehicle. And to make things better, SpaceX received enough data to also conclude that—in the words of Elon Musk himself—Falcon Heavy will finally soar into the sky in about a week or so! Very great news.
So by the first week of February, Musk's Tesla Roadster will hopefully be making its way towards Mars' orbit (not to Mars itself) if all goes well at KSC. Considering how diligent SpaceX was in making sure that Falcon Heavy was in tip-top shape before igniting her three core boosters today, I think it will. Carry on!
Monday, January 22, 2018
Earlier today, the U.S. Senate reached a compromise that would end the 3-day shutdown and keep the American government open for at least the next 3 weeks. Assuming that the House of Representatives agrees to the deal and both chambers of Congress approve the plan, the bill will then go to the White House for the president to sign. A best case scenario would be that the government reopens as early as tomorrow. This is great news for the United States...and definitely awesome news for SpaceX, as it can soon plan for the Falcon Heavy rocket's eventual static fire once civilian employees for the U.S. Air Force's 45th Space Wing report back to work at Cape Canaveral in Florida sometime this week. Stay tuned.
Sunday, January 21, 2018
Despite the fact the static-fire test for SpaceX's newest rocket has been delayed numerous times over the past ten days, Falcon Heavy has managed to undergo a couple of fueling tests—otherwise known as Wet Dress Rehearsals (WDRs)—at Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Launch Complex (LC)-39A since that time. Another static fire attempt was targeted for tomorrow, but the U.S. government shutdown that began at midnight on January 20 caused it to be cancelled. While SpaceX is allowed to conduct Falcon Heavy propellant loads at LC-39A on its own accord, government employees at Cape Canaveral, KSC and the U.S. Air Force (its 45th Space Wing in general) are required to coordinate with SpaceX in regards to an engine test (since preparing for a static fire is the equivalent of prepping for a launch itself...with Range safety, communications and other aspects coming into play). These employees are furloughed as long as the shutdown is in effect. Hopefully, it won't last too long (even though the last government shutdown, which took place in 2013, ended after 16 days), and SpaceX has gained enough knowledge from the Wet Dress Rehearsals to finally ignite the Falcon Heavy's 27 Merlin engines on its next attempt. That is all.
Friday, January 19, 2018
Exploration Mission-1 Identifier (News Release)
The Exploration Mission-1 artwork showcases the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket carrying the Orion spacecraft and lifting off from Launch Pad 39B at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida. The triangular shape represents the three main programs that comprise NASA’s Deep Space Exploration Systems: Orion, SLS, and Exploration Ground Systems, and is a classic shape for NASA mission emblems dating back to the shuttle era.
Several elements within the design carry symbolic meaning for this historic flight. The silver highlight surrounding this patch gives nod to the silver Orion spacecraft, including the European service module that will be voyaging 40,000 miles past the Moon in deep space. The orange rocket and flames represent the firepower of SLS. The setting is historic Launch Pad 39B, represented by the three lightning towers. The red and blue mission trajectories encompassing the white full Moon proudly emphasizes the hard work, tradition, and dedication of this American led-mission while also embracing NASA’s international partnership with ESA (European Space Agency) as both agencies forge a new future in space.
The Exploration Mission-1 emblem was designed in collaboration by the creative team working for the Deep Space Exploration Systems programs, which includes Orion, SLS, and Exploration Ground Systems, located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Johnson Space Center in Houston, Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Kennedy. Because the maiden mission of SLS and Orion is uncrewed, the program teams had the rare opportunity to conceive the mission identifier. Exploration Mission-2, which will fly with crew, will have an insignia designed by NASA’s Astronaut Office with the help of the crew that will fly aboard the most capable deep space system to take flight.
Wednesday, January 17, 2018
Kilopower: What’s Next? (News Release)
When astronauts someday venture to the Moon, Mars and other destinations, one of the first and most important resources they will need is power. A reliable and efficient power system will be essential for day-to-day necessities, such as lighting, water and oxygen, and for mission objectives, like running experiments and producing fuel for the long journey home.
That’s why NASA is conducting experiments on Kilopower, a new power source that could provide safe, efficient and plentiful energy for future robotic and human space exploration missions.
This pioneering space fission power system could provide up to 10 kilowatts of electrical power -- enough to run two average households -- continuously for at least ten years. Four Kilopower units would provide enough power to establish an outpost.
About the Experiment
The prototype power system was designed and developed by NASA’s Glenn Research Center in collaboration with NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, while the reactor core was provided by the Y12 National Security Complex. NASA Glenn shipped the prototype power system from Cleveland to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in late September.
The team at the NNSS recently began tests on the reactor core. According to NASA Glenn’s Marc Gibson, the Kilopower lead engineer, the team will connect the power system to the core and begin end-to-end checkouts this month. Gibson says the experiments should conclude with a full-power test lasting approximately 28 hours in late March.
The Kilopower advantage
Fission power can provide abundant energy anywhere we want humans or robots to go. On Mars, the Sun’s power varies widely throughout the seasons, and periodic dust storms can last for months. On the Moon, the cold lunar night lingers for 14 days.
“We want a power source that can handle extreme environments,” says Lee Mason, NASA’s principal technologist for power and energy storage. “Kilopower opens up the full surface of Mars, including the northern latitudes where water may reside. On the Moon, Kilopower could be deployed to help search for resources in permanently shadowed craters.”
In these challenging environments, power generation from sunlight is difficult and fuel supply is limited. Kilopower is lightweight, reliable and efficient, which makes it just right for the job.
Friday, January 12, 2018
A little over a year after she conducted her first glide test, the VSS Unity successfully landed at the Mojave Air & Sport Port in the California desert after completing her seventh solo flight yesterday. SpaceShipTwo (SS2) moves one step closer to performing a rocket-powered demonstration once more...with Unity having simulated a powered flight by carrying water ballast that mimicked the weight and positioning of RocketMotorTwo if it were attached to the spacecraft. Also, upon release from her mothership White Knight II from an altitude of 50,000 feet during the test, SS2 immediately made a sharp descent, accelerating to Mach 0.9...which is around the maximum airspeed the vehicle could attain without igniting her hybrid rocket engine!
And in another preparation for VSS Unity's eventual flight into suborbital space, the thermal protection system (TPS) was fully applied to the craft's outer surface prior to yesterday's test. The TPS prevents heat loads generated by air friction during rocket-powered ascent and supersonic re-entry from causing damage to the vehicle. The TPS is visible as the protective silvered film that covers the white flaps on Unity's "feather system" in the last two photos posted below.
If all goes well with her test flights in 2018, we may well see VSS Unity ignite her rocket engine thousands of feet in the air before the end of this year. Let's cross our fingers.
Monday, January 8, 2018
After SpaceX successfully sent the U.S. government's classified Zuma payload to low-Earth orbit yesterday (via a Falcon 9 rocket), the company is now primed on launching its newest vehicle—the Falcon Heavy—to space before the end of this month. These photos are courtesy of Elliott Skeer, who posted them on Twitter while taking a bus tour at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida this morning...courtesy of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Within the next day or two, the Falcon Heavy will finally ignite all 27 of its Merlin engines during a static-fire test. Unlike the previous static fires conducted for the Falcon 9 following its return to flight after a September 2016 pad explosion at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station near KSC, the payload fairing will remain attached to the Falcon Heavy during this ground test. Apparently, the prospect of losing Elon Musk's $200,000 Tesla Roadster in another pad explosion isn't as bad as losing a hundred-million-dollar satellite instead! It's all good. I can't wait to see the Falcon Heavy come to life!
Saturday, January 6, 2018
NASA / Charlie Duke
NASA Remembers Agency’s Most Experienced Astronaut (Press Release)
The following is a statement from acting NASA Administrator Robert Lightfoot on the passing of John Young, who died Friday night following complications from pneumonia at the age of 87. Young is the only agency astronaut to go into space as part of the Gemini, Apollo and space shuttle programs, and the first to fly into space six times:
“John was one of that group of early space pioneers whose bravery and commitment sparked our nation's first great achievements in space. But, not content with that, his hands-on contributions continued long after the last of his six spaceflights -- a world record at the time of his retirement from the cockpit.
“Between his service in the U.S. Navy, where he retired at the rank of captain, and his later work as a civilian at NASA, John spent his entire life in service to our country. His career included the test pilot’s dream of two ‘first flights’ in a new spacecraft -- with Gus Grissom on Gemini 3, and as Commander of STS-1, the first space shuttle mission, which some have called ‘the boldest test flight in history.’ He flew as Commander on Gemini 10, the first mission to rendezvous with two separate spacecraft the course of a single flight. He orbited the Moon in Apollo 10, and landed there as Commander of the Apollo 16 mission. On STS-9, his final spaceflight, and in an iconic display of test pilot ‘cool,’ he landed the space shuttle with a fire in the back end.
“I participated in many Space Shuttle Flight Readiness Reviews with John, and will always remember him as the classic ‘hell of an engineer’ from Georgia Tech, who had an uncanny ability to cut to the heart of a technical issue by posing the perfect question -- followed by his iconic phrase, ‘Just asking...’
“John Young was at the forefront of human space exploration with his poise, talent, and tenacity. He was in every way the 'astronaut’s astronaut.' We will miss him.”
NASA / Robert L. Crippen
Friday, January 5, 2018
NASA Deep Space Exploration Systems Look Ahead to Action-Packed 2018 (News Release)
Engineers preparing NASA’s deep space exploration systems to support missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond are gearing up for a busy 2018. The agency aims to complete the manufacturing of all the major hardware by the end of the year for Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1), which will pave the road for future missions with astronauts. Planes, trains, trucks and ships will move across America and over oceans to deliver hardware for assembly and testing of components for the Orion spacecraft and the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket while teams at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida prepare the Ground Systems infrastructure. Testing will take place from the high seas to the high skies and in between throughout the year and across the country, not only in support of EM-1, but also for all subsequent missions.
Early in the year, engineers at Kennedy will bolt Orion’s heat shield to the crew module. The heat shield will endure temperatures as high as 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit, half as hot as the surface of the Sun, when Orion returns from its missions near the Moon. Mating the heat shield is a crucial step before the service module arrives from Europe in the middle of the year. Once the powerhouse for the spacecraft arrives, technicians will outfit it for mating with the crew module and stack the elements together, joining propulsion lines, avionics and other connections. After the major elements are stacked together, technicians will verify that the integrated crew and service module work as expected and hardware is responding as intended before shipping the stack to NASA’s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio for testing in 2019.
NASA engineers and the U.S. Navy will head out to sea off the coast of California in January to evaluate how they plan to recover Orion after the EM-1 test flight. In Yuma, Arizona, engineers will perform three remaining tests to qualify Orion’s parachutes for missions with crew, and at White Sands Test Facility in New Mexico, workers will continue tests to verify the propulsion system for Orion’s European Service Module works as planned. At the Denver facility of Orion prime contractor Lockheed Martin, a structural test article will undergo pressure, acoustic, pyrotechnic and other testing to help ensure Orion can stand up to vibrations, loads, sounds and blasts associated with separation events in flight.
Work is already well underway and will continue for the Orion spacecraft that will carry astronauts on Exploration Mission-2 (EM-2). Workers are welding the primary elements of Orion’s structure at Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans and will ship the completed vessel to Kennedy by the end of 2018. At NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, engineers will review the life support and crew survival systems, and astronauts and test subjects will continue evaluations of the crew interface. NASA engineers are preparing a test version of the spacecraft and separation ring for a mid-air test of Orion’s launch abort system. A precursor to the EM-2 crewed flight of Orion, the test, called Ascent Abort 2, will validate the operations of the launch abort system in a dynamic flight environment.
Space Launch System
SLS engineers will move at full throttle to complete building rocket hardware that will roar off the launch pad. Michoud will see a surge of activity, as five major structural pieces of SLS come together to form the 212-foot-tall core stage. The four RS-25 engines that will produce two million pounds of thrust upon launch will be attached to the stage. Engineers will ship the integrated hardware on the Pegasus barge to NASA’s Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, for the final test in 2019 before launch, called the “green run” test, when all four engines roar to life and drain the core stage tanks of more than 700,000 gallons of propellant in a mere eight minutes. The brains of the rocket, the core stage avionics and flight computers, will complete qualification and functional testing and be readied for the green run.
Solid rocket booster segments made by Orbital ATK in Utah will ride the rails to Kennedy and join booster parts, such as the aft and forward skirts. Two launch adapters made at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama will also arrive at Kennedy. Pegasus will take the 30-foot-tall launch vehicle stage adapter, and NASA’s Guppy cargo airplane will carry the Orion stage adapter. The Orion stage adapter not only connects the Orion vehicle to the SLS, but will also be loaded with 13 small satellites.
SLS testing will continue as the core stage structural test articles for the liquid hydrogen tank, intertank, and liquid oxygen tank arrive at Marshall and are loaded into towering test stands to be pushed, pulled and twisted to simulate flight. Meanwhile, engineers are working on the design of the Exploration Upper Stage and preparing drawings and engineering products for a Critical Design Review in late 2018. Plans call for using the Exploration Upper Stage on EM-2 as part of the first crewed flight test. SLS teams will also continue to build core stage components and other rocket parts for EM-2 and test engines in support of future missions with crew.
Workers at Kennedy will continue to ready NASA’s modernized spaceport in Florida for blast off of the rocket and spacecraft. In the spring, the mobile launcher will be rolled out to Launch Pad 39B ahead of a fit check that will verify all physical connections between the launcher and pad systems fit before rolling it into the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) for testing. This includes the major interfaces such as mount mechanisms and ignition overpressure and sound suppression water pipes, as well as smaller interfaces like gaseous nitrogen and helium supply lines and access platforms. After testing in the VAB is complete, the mobile launcher will roll back to the pad for several months of full system testing. Over the summer, critical software updates used for command and control to support EM-1 will be completed and teams will prepare for crewed missions.
Ground systems engineers will begin launch pad preparations for launch processing in support of EM-2 by fabricating umbilicals that will service the Exploration Upper Stage engines while the rocket is on the pad. Workers will also start construction for a massive holding tank for liquid hydrogen that will be pumped into the core stage of SLS.
All the work by NASA and its contractors helps set the stage for an even busier 2019, when Orion and SLS will be integrated, tested, and rolled out to the launch pad — one of the final steps before EM-1. That initial test flight of the SLS -- launched from NASA’s modernized spaceport in Florida -- will send Orion beyond where any spacecraft built for humans has ventured. All of this foundational work in 2018 and 2019 will enable NASA’s efforts to build a flexible, reusable and sustainable infrastructure that will last multiple decades and support missions into deep space of increasing complexity.
Thursday, January 4, 2018
United Launch Alliance Completes Key Milestone for Launch of Boeing’s Starliner and Return of U.S.-based Human Spaceflight (Press Release)
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., Jan. 4, 2018 – United Launch Alliance (ULA) successfully completed an Atlas V Launch Segment Design Certification Review (DCR) recently in preparation for the launch of astronauts to the International Space Station from U.S. soil in The Boeing Company’s CST-100 Starliner spacecraft. ULA’s Atlas V DCR supported the Boeing International Space Station (ISS) DCR that was held with NASA at Kennedy Space Center in early December.
“Design Certification Review is a significant milestone that completes the design phase of the program, paving the way to operations,” said Barb Egan, ULA Commercial Crew program manager. “Hardware and software final qualification tests are underway, as well as a major integrated test series, including structural loads. Future tests will involve launch vehicle hardware, such as jettison tests, acoustic tests, and, finally, a pad abort test in White Sands, New Mexico.”
Launch vehicle production is currently on track for an uncrewed August 2018 Orbital Flight Test (OFT). The OFT booster for the uncrewed flight is in final assembly at the factory in Decatur, Ala., and the OFT Centaur upper stage has completed pressure testing. Other hardware such as the launch vehicle adapter and aeroskirt production are on schedule to support test articles and flight.
“ULA is progressing into the operational phase to launch the OFT and Crew Flight Test in 2018, and we are pleased with the progress we’re making toward a successful launch of Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner on the Atlas V,” said Gary Wentz, ULA Human and Commercial Systems vice president. “We cannot overstate the importance of all the steps that go into this process as there is more than just a mission or hardware at stake, but the lives of our brave astronauts.”
The Boeing Company selected ULA’s Atlas V rocket for human-rated spaceflight to the ISS. ULA’s Atlas V has launched more than 70 times with a 100 percent mission success rate.
With more than a century of combined heritage, ULA is the nation’s most experienced and reliable launch service provider. ULA has successfully delivered more than 120 satellites to orbit that aid meteorologists in tracking severe weather, unlock the mysteries of our solar system, provide critical capabilities for troops in the field and enable personal device-based GPS navigation.
Source: United Launch Alliance
Monday, January 1, 2018
Just thought I'd start this year off by posting these amazing hi-res photos that were recently released by SpaceX of its first Falcon Heavy rocket. The Falcon Heavy's static-fire test is currently scheduled for January 6—while its maiden flight is being targeted for no earlier than January 15. Exciting times lie ahead! Especially considering that NASA's Space Launch System should truly be taking form at the Michoud Assembly Facility in Louisiana over the course of this year, and test flights for SpaceX's Crew Dragon vehicle and Boeing's CST-100 capsule should take place sometime in the spring and summer, respectively...
Godspeed and have a safe and memorable 2018.